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Abhushan Education & Guidance

Trust thru Transparency


"Know your Diamonds, because ignorance will cost you more!!"

Offering quality education in fundamentals of diamonds and jewellery designing through our non profitable social education institute - Delhi Institute of Diamonds.
"We educate before we sell". Because transparency is the key to a growing company to build trust for masses. Given below is the basic information about Gold, Diamonds and Jewellery which will act as jewellery buying tips for you and your family.


What to look for when you go and buy Jewellery:

  • Hallmarking and purity symbols
  • Certificates in case of Diamonds, especially Solitaires
  • Exact and accurate Gross Weight and Net Weight
  • Return policy and conditions, if any



Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au. It has been a highly sought-after precious metal for coinage, jewellery, and other arts since the beginning of recorded history. Gold won't tarnish, rust, or corrode, and though it's very strong, it is also the most malleable of all metals. Pure gold is too soft to withstand the stresses of every-day wear, so it is alloyed with a mixture of metals like silver, copper, nickel, and zinc to give it strength and durability. Karatage, noted by a number followed by "K" indicates purity, or how much percentage of the metal in a piece of jewellery is gold. Karatage is expressed in 24ths, making 24k gold 100% gold or Pure Gold.


Karats Percentage Purity of Gold Purity Symbol Characteristics Usage
24 karat 100% gold 999 Natural Gold Pure Gold and hence too soft for jewelry. Used in coins and bars only.
22 karat 91.6% gold HM-916 Very Soft Recommended for gold and antique jewelry with rich gold hue.
18 karat 75.0% gold HM-750 Relatively Harder Recommended for fine diamond jewelry.
14 karat 58.3% gold HM-585 Hard Gold Recommended for fine diamond jewelry.
9 karat 37.5% gold HM-375 Very Hard Gold Not acceptable for jewelry.

White Gold

Like, yellow gold this is also usual gold which is artificially turned White by adding at least one alloy of gold and at least one white metal, usually nickel, manganese or palladium. Like yellow gold, the purity of white gold is also given in karats. Many believe that the color of the rhodium plating, which is seen on many commercial pieces, is actually the color of white gold but this is a myth. Rhodium plating is not permanent and fades away with regular usage. Converting Gold into white requires addition of other metals like Nickel and palladium. Palladium and nickel act as primary bleaching agents for gold. The important point is that there is no price difference between the natural yellow gold and white gold rates. Lot of people these days are fond of wedding bands, engagement rings, light weights rings and chains made up of white gold.



The price of gold jewellery is dependent upon the purity of the gold i.e. karatage, weight of the item, as well as the design and construction of the piece of jewellery. However the rate of the pure gold is a global price and fluctuates with the global demand and supply. Various news channels and print media is a free source for an approximate idea of prevailing rates of Gold. You can also visit the Affinity Home Page for everyday gold prices.




Diamonds In mineralogy, Diamond (from the ancient Greek???? - adamas "unbreakable") is an allotrope of carbon having the hardest ever known cubical structure. It's physical and optical properties makes it most loved gemstone available.

For most people, buying a diamond is a new experience, but that doesn't mean it should be overwhelming. Understanding a diamond's quality characteristics is straightforward and simple. As you yourself cannot judge the quality of a diamond, hence, before purchasing a diamond, you should expect to review a copy of its certificate as proof that it has undergone an unbiased, professional examination.

Understanding a Diamond: Diamond Anatomy

Wondering what on earth is the diamond's pavillion? Table? Culet? The graphic and supporting text below explain the various "parts" of a diamond.

  • Diameter: The width of the diamond as measured through the girdle.
  • Table: This is the large, flat top facet of a diamond.
  • Crown: The upper portion of a cut gemstone, above the girdle.
  • Girdle: The narrow rim of a diamond that separates the crown from the pavilion. It is the largest diameter to any part of the stone.
  • Pavilion: The lower portion of the diamond, below the girdle. It is sometimes referred to as the base.
  • Culet: The tiny facet on the pointed bottom of the pavilion, which is the portion of a cut gem below the girdle.
  • Depth: The height of a gemstone, from the culet to the table.

Understanding a certificate and its terminology about diamonds:

A diamond certificate, also called a Diamond Grading Report, is a report created by a team of certified gemologists. The diamond is evaluated, measured, and scrutinized using trained eyes, a jeweler's loupe, a microscope, color standards and other industry tools. A completed certificate includes an analysis of the diamond's dimensions, cut, clarity, color, polish, symmetry, and other characteristics, including a thorough plotting of all its inclusions also. Refer to sample certificate for a reference.

GIA Certificate

A GIA (Gemological Institute of America) report provides detailed information about the dimensions, carat weight, shape and cut of a stone. GIA reports also cover any treatments or enhancements that have been done, and of course, whether the stone is natural or synthetic. Although GIA's diamond grading methodology is the industry standard they are also known for their "colored stone grading system" used to quantify the hue, tone, and saturation of a colored stone.

IGI Certificate

The International Gemological Institute (IGI) is the oldest institute of its kind in Antwerp, founded in 1975, and is the largest independent gem certification and appraisal institute in the United States, with operations in New York City, Los Angeles, Toronto, Antwerp, Bangkok, Mumbai, Tokyo, Dubai and Hong Kong. The IGI offers Identification Reports, Appraisal Reports, Certificates of Authenticity, and Attestations of Origin. The IGI lab grades diamonds as well as colored gemstones along several basic criteria which include: shape and cut, clarity, origin (colored gems), measurements, weight, color, and finish.

Understanding 4 C's of Diamond


A carat is a weight measuring unit equal to 0.2 grams. It is the internationally used unit to measure the weight of diamonds. Within the diamond trade, fractions of a carat are referred to as "cents" or "points" or simply as "fractions". A 50-cents diamond weighs 0.5 carats or 1/2 a carat. A 1-carat diamond weighs 100 cents. As nature would have it, rough diamonds come in all shapes and sizes, as well as colors and purities. The larger, whiter and cleaner the diamond, the more rare it is. Accordingly, the cost per carat of a larger diamond of the same color, clarity and cut will be higher than a smaller diamond. The price per carat of diamonds rises proportionately with size. Keep in mind that the per carat price gets multiplied by the carat weight. More weight equals more money so, many diamond cutters sacrifice brilliance to maximize carat weight and profit. It is important to realize that weight does not always equal size or beauty. Poorly cut diamonds intended to maximize size can be dull and lifeless. Some experienced cutters sacrifice weight and focus on cut to obtain the most beautiful and brilliant Hearts and Arrows diamonds on the market today.


Diamond color is graded according to the GIA Grading Scale. Grades are based on the amount of yellow that is visible when viewed facedown through the pavilion on a white diamond color card using daylight equivalent fluorescent light. Each color grade is based on a very small range. When a diamond is color graded it is compared using a set of master stones. Master stones are a set of real diamonds that display a range of known colors. It is extremely difficult to see the color differences within diamonds, but master stones help graders distinguish between one color and the next.

The color-grading scale ranges from D to Z. The highest color grade and whitest stone available is a D color diamond. This is also the rarest color grade, which translates to a higher value. Colors E and F have no detectable color to the naked eye and they fall into the Colorless category. Diamonds in the G to J color range are considered Near Colorless. The eye begins to detect faint traces of yellow in diamonds that are in the J to M range. Diamond Ideals typically sells diamonds in the color range of D to J and occasionally K.


The diamond's clarity is a description of its internal purity. With fewer imperfections within the stone, the diamond is more rare and has a higher value. The clarity scale was developed by the Gemological Institute of America (GIA) to quantify these imperfections. Clarity Grades defined by the GIA:

Flawless - Flawless diamonds have no inclusions or blemishes when viewed under 10X magnification by a skilled grader.

Internally Flawless (IF) - An IF diamond has no inclusions, only blemishes when viewed under 10X magnification.

Very Very Slightly Included (VVS1 and VVS2) - VVS diamonds contain minute inclusions that are difficult for a skilled grader to see under 10X magnification. The inclusion in a VVS1 diamond are extremely difficult to see face-up, or may be visible only through the pavilion. Inclusions in a VVS2 diamond are very difficult to see. Typically VVS diamonds have a pinpoint or two; however, characteristics like a bearded girdle or tiny chips might also be present in VVS diamonds depending on their visibility.

Very Slightly Included (VS1 and VS2) - Diamonds of VS clarity contain minor inclusions that range from difficult (VS1) to somewhat easy (VS2) to see under 10X magnification. Typical inclusions in VS diamonds include small crystals, feathers and distinct groups of pinpoints.

Slightly Included (SI1 and SI2) - Diamonds of SI clarity contain noticeable inclusions that are easy (SI1) or very easy (SI2) to see under 10X magnification. Typical inclusions, such as crystals, clusters of pinpoints and feathers, are centrally located.

Included (I1, I2, and I3) - Diamonds in the 'I' clarity range contain inclusions that are obvious under 10X magnification. These inclusions can often times be seen face-up without magnification, sometimes affect the stone's durability and can be so numerous or large that they affect transparency and brilliance.

What is Eye-Clean?

"Eye-clean" is a term used to describe a diamond or an inclusion that is not visible to the unaided eye when the diamond is held face-up (viewed through the table) at a normal viewing distance of 10 to 12 inches. Nearly all VS clarity diamonds are eye-clean, most SI1 clarity diamonds are eye-clean and some SI2 and even I1 clarity diamonds are eye-clean.

An inclusion is called "eye-visible" when it is visible to the unaided eye, without magnification.

4. CUT

Cut is a diamond's most important characteristic. It has the greatest overall influence on a diamond's beauty. Diamond's cut grade is an objective measure of a diamond's light performance, or, what we generally think of as sparkle or luster. Gemologists recommend selecting the highest cut grade within your budget. The reason is simple: of the Four C's, no other characteristic has a greater influence on a diamond's appearance. When a diamond is cut with the proper proportions, light is returned out of the top of the diamond (which gemologists refer to as the table). If it is cut too shallow, light leaks out of the bottom; too deep and it escapes out of the side.

Ideal Cut: This cut is intended to maximize brilliance, and the typically smaller table sizes of these diamonds have the added benefit of creating a great deal of dispersion or 'fire' as well. Ideal quality diamonds are truly for the person who enjoys knowing that he has one of the finest things that money can buy. This category applies only to round diamonds. An exquisite and rare cut, also known as "Hearts and Arrows" cut.

Excellent Cut: In the case of round diamonds, many Excellent Cut diamonds have cuts that are the equal of any Ideal Cut diamond, though they often can be purchased at slightly lower prices than Ideal Cuts. They are intended to provide maximum brilliance and fire. Like the Ideal Cut, these are also for the person who enjoys knowing that he has one of the finest things that money can buy.

Very Good Cut: These diamonds reflect most of the light that enters them, creating a good deal of brilliance. In many cases many of the parameters of diamonds in this range will overlap with certain parameters of diamonds in the Ideal or Excellent ranges.

Good Cut: Diamonds that reflect much of the light that enters them. Their proportions fall outside of the preferred range because the cutter has chosen to create the largest possible diamond from the original rough crystal, rather than cutting extra weight off to create a smaller Premium quality diamond. Diamonds in this range offer an excellent cost-savings to customers who want to stay in a budget without sacrificing quality or beauty.

Fair Cut: A diamond graded as Fair is actually cut in deviated proportions and thus reflects only a small proportion of the light that enters it.

Poor Cut: Weaker cut than Fair cut. A diamond graded as poor reflects rather small proportion of the light that enters it. Typically these diamonds have been cut to maximize the carat weight over most other considerations.

Fancy Diamond Shapes

The shape of the cut is a matter of personal taste and preference. The shape of the diamond cut is heavily dependent upon the original shape of the rough stone. The round brilliant cut is preferred when the crystal is an octahedron, as two stones could be cut from one crystal. Several basic diamond shapes are listed below.